Heat treatment of tool forged by repeated alternate upsetting and drawing out
Although heat treatment of high-speed steels has been covered in numerous treatises, their microstructure before treatment still receives insufficient attention. This article therefore explores the relationship between the initial microstructure and resultant properties in heat treated steels for cutting tools and sonotrodes (special tools for ultrasonic welding). As shown in experiments, the size of fragments of primary carbides affects the properties of the matrix after heat treatment and the precipitation of secondary carbides. Hence, the decisive factor is the method by which the initial stock is mechanically worked, as it may produce primary carbides with more uniform distribution and size. In contrast, the article lists some cases where clusters of carbides caused cracking after heat treatment. The article also covers multidirectional forging by which the desired initial microstructure is obtained.
Keywords: amount of working in tool steels, primary and secondary carbides, heat treatment of high-speed steels